Back to Ask the Diabetes Team Questions from November 1999

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  1. My step-son is 6 years old and was diagnosed with type 2 when he was 3. His sugar levels are always fluctuating, from registering as "Lo" up to the 400's. What can be done to regulate it more? (30 Nov 1999)

  2. My son (17) has had diabetes for 2 years. We realize he was smoking marijuana for 2 months. We discuss it with him, and is not doing it anymore, but he told us it was not "dangerous" for his diabetes. Can you give us more information about "consequences" of marijuana in diabetics? (30 Nov 1999)

  3. My 8 year old daughter had a blood sugar reading of 211 at a cookout the other day. She is not a diabetic. Could the 211 reading be from eating, or should I have more tests run? (30 Nov 1999)

  4. Our doctor proposed to switch insulin for our daughter, who is 4 years old. Now she uses Mixtard 40/60 in the morning and Humalog in the evening. The doctor likes her to switch both injections to Humalog Mix25. Are there experiences with using this insulin for young children? (30 Nov 1999)

  5. My son was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when he was two and half years. He is now thirteen years old. However about 2 months ago he suffered severe brain damage the cause which is believed to be prolonged hyperglycemia. Is there a physician you can refer me in South Africa who can help my son? (30 Nov 1999)

  6. My 22 year old son was diagnosed with type 1 about ten months ago. This past weekend he had his first incident of insulin shock but it happened at about 2 in the morning. Luckily his girlfriend was visiting and noticed he was incoherent in bed. What happens next time if she's not there and how can this happen while sleeping? (30 Nov 1999)

  7. My daughter is a 6 year old type 1 diabetic. She suffers from low readings in the morning and sometimes is woken by her low readings as early as 4 A.M. We have tried increasing her bedtime snack and usually give her about 30 grams of carb. She still gets low overnight. Any suggestions? (30 Nov 1999)

  8. My daughter was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes five months ago. If this "disease" is called autoimmune, is it a good idea to make her immune system stronger? (30 Nov 1999)

  9. I work with children and adolescents in various rehabilitation settings. Currently I am working with a 15 year old client (female). To better serve this young lady I am trying to find a peer support for her. Any suggestions? (30 Nov 1999)

  10. My son is 12 years old and is a Insulin Dependent Diabetic for the past 5 years. I would like to know how many times in a week should we check fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. Is it advisable to check urine sugar levels every day also? (30 Nov 1999)

  11. Can I give my Type 1 diabetic 5 year old over-the-counter fever reducers that presumably contain sugar (for example, Tylenol [acetominophen])? If not, what should I give her? (29 Nov 1999)

  12. My 9 year old son was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes 4 months ago. Recently, I was reading a book that suggested that one of the ways children can acquire diabetes is through drinking water that is high in nitrates. Do you know where I can find out more information on this topic? (29 Nov 1999)

  13. My mother has diabetes; she is 42 years old. I also don't know what type of diabetes she has. Please can you tell me what she can eat/drink to prevent the risk of getting into serious situations? (29 Nov 1999)

  14. My sister was diagnosed with diabetes 2 this afternoon. We are trying to find a diet for her but she does not like a lot of the types of foods normal people eat on a day to day basis. Please help us find something that she can eat to help control her diabetes. (28 Nov 1999)

  15. I am an educator who works in a special education school. I have a student who was recently diagnosed with diabetes. This student has been having severe outbursts after lunch, prior to his being diagnosed. Could these behaviors in any way be affected by his diabetes? (28 Nov 1999)

  16. I am a 31 year old Caucasian male, average weight. I was diagnosed almost two years ago with a blood glucose of 500. Since about three weeks after diagnosis, I have taken no insulin. Could I just have glucose intolerance that got temporarily out of control two years ago? (28 Nov 1999)

  17. My son has had diabetes for two years. In the last couple of months his behavior has become more uncontrollable. Is this normal for a child to have this kind of behavior? (28 Nov 1999)

  18. What is the new pill for type 1 diabetes? I read a article in Reader's Digest of September, 1999. (28 Nov 1999)

  19. What are the psychological ramifications for an 18 year old young man with Type 1 diabetes? (28 Nov 1999)

  20. My 6 year old granddaughter was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes 2 years ago. We have to send an earthquake preparedness kit to keep at school. We know what insulin supplies she might need in case of a disaster and have packed that for her. What kind of non-perishable foods should we pack and how much? (28 Nov 1999)

  21. I have a brother-in-law who is type 1 diabetic and he goes into insulin shock about 3 times a week. Does insulin shock cause cause a person to become violent, with aggressive behavior? He's gets real mean acting. (28 Nov 1999)

  22. I am a 30 year old and have had type 1 for 24 years. I am on a pump and have A1Cs in the high 6s. In the last 2 years, I have started to have different symptoms for hypoglycemia. (28 Nov 1999)

  23. I am 31 age, type 1 diabetic for 14 years when I was age 16. I am going now to marry. To what extent does diabetes effect the sexual function? How can a diabetic patient keep his sexual function safe without diabetic complications? (28 Nov 1999)

  24. My daughter is 8 years old and has had diabetes for 6 years. She eats sweetened cereal almost every morning. Is this bad for her? People tell me she shouldn't eat it ever. I think it's okay. (26 Nov 1999)

  25. I am 27 years old and pregnant with our first child. I am in my 29th week of pregnancy and was just diagnosed with gestational diabetes. I am also Rh-negative. Is there any correlation between being Rh-negative and developing gestational diabetes? (26 Nov 1999)

  26. I have a 4 1/2 year old daughter who has had a number of nighttime hypos, a few of them causing her to wake screaming. Is there a better way to treat these nighttime hypos (she never has the same reaction in the day due to a hypo) e.g., glucagon injection? (26 Nov 1999)

  27. My 5 year old has had Type 1 for a year, and has always struggled with very high blood sugars in the afternoon. Is it possible that her body is releasing counterregulatory hormones in a response to too much insulin causing a rapid drop in blood sugar? (24 Nov 1999)

  28. I have a friend who has been diabetic for about 6 years. He takes two diabetes pills twice a day. He frequently has high blood sugars. His doctor has referred him to an endocrinologist. How will I, his doctor and the endocrinologist get my friend to understand that he has to stick to a strict regimen with his blood testing? (24 Nov 1999)

  29. Were there any cases of full recovery from juvenile Type 1 diabetes? (24 Nov 1999)

  30. Unfortunately, the myth that Type 1 diabetes is a childhood disease lives on, and those of us who acquire Type 1 as adults are usually misdiagnosed, despite the obvious. We suffer horribly as doctors try pills on us, but the answer is to give us insulin. (24 Nov 1999)

  31. I am 23 years old and have been diagnosed for two years with Type 1 diabetes. I recently experienced DKA, and until then I did not know just how serious my condition was. Ever since I was released from the hospital, I have had a serious water retention problem. (24 Nov 1999)

  32. I am a 39 year old white female. About 10 years ago, I became extremely ill with fatigue, weight loss and vomiting. Finally, I was hospitalized with kidney failure (interstitial nephritis). I have always wondered what could have caused it. (24 Nov 1999)

  33. I am a 29 year old with type 1 diabetes for 17 years. My question is regarding Humalog and pregnancy. Although not yet approved by the FDA, I have heard of women using it while pregnant. Different doctors have given me different answers, so now I am really confused! (22 Nov 1999)

  34. I have a diabetic student who I think is playing games with me. He eats junk food constantly. Whenever he gets in trouble for something, he acts like he is having breathing problems and says he needs another snack because he is low. (22 Nov 1999)

  35. I have been reading the Glucose Revolution, and I understand the premise that feeding my daughter many low GI (glycemic index-intensity) foods could help control her blood sugars. Is there any reason why I would not want to focus on these low GI foods (other than if her blood sugar was low)? (22 Nov 1999)

  36. My friend in Ireland has a 19 month old insulin dependent child. She takes his blood test from the ear lobe. Is there any problem with this? (22 Nov 1999)

  37. I was told that Type 2 is harder to control than Type 1. How can that be? Type 2 to me seems like just diet and exercise to control. (22 Nov 1999)

  38. My 13 year old daughter is diabetic since the age of 4 and participates in sports at her school (volleyball, basketball, track and cheerleading). She has been asked to remove her medical necklace and not to wear the chain around her neck. (22 Nov 1999)

  39. My son is two; he was diagnosed when he was 11 months. His blood sugars have been up and down since then, although of late they have been good. He has been suffering from migraines and my question is "Is this a perk of diabetes?" (20 Nov 1999)

  40. My 17 year old daughter was diagnosed with MODY 2 a year ago. Lately her blood sugar numbers have risen to where they are 150 upon waking and around 200 before retiring. (20 Nov 1999)

  41. My daughter, age 7, was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes 4 weeks ago. She is claiming low blood sugar each time she doesn't want to do an actively at school. She is trying to get all of her friends to feel sorry for her, and her friends have seen the kids' video on diabetes and are tired of hearing about it. How long will this last? (20 Nov 1999)

  42. My grandson is four years old and always is crying because he is so thirsty or he has to go to the bathroom. His mother asked the doctors about this, because his father has diabetes. They said he is fine, if it continues, we will test him when he is five years old. Why do they wait till he is five? (20 Nov 1999)

  43. My 9-year old son has started wetting the bed at least once a week. He also eats so much food at dinner time we have to stop him or else he throws up. I was wondering if I should be concerned and have him checked for diabetes. (20 Nov 1999)

  44. Where can I find support groups for parents in my city? (20 Nov 1999)

  45. My 22 month old daughter was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes about 5 months ago. I am very concerned about the eating habits we are establishing in our effort to avoid lows. I am finding myself bribing, chasing, and tricking her to get her to eat. (16 Nov 1999)

  46. I have heard that aspartame is not recommended for use by type 2 diabetics. Can you please provide me with any information regarding this? (16 Nov 1999)

  47. A friend of mine was diagnosed 4 months ago. After a lot of changing with his insulin dose, he is now taking 7 units of lente A.M. and 9 units of lente P.M. plus 2 units of Regular in the morning. Also he covers every serving of carbohydrate with 1 unit of Humalog. His doctor told him he never saw such a ridiculous regimen. Can you please explain me what's wrong? (16 Nov 1999)

  48. My 37-year-old has had Type 1 diabetes for 5 years. Two weeks ago she found out she was pregnant but over the weekend she had a miscarriage. Needless to say her mother and I are worried sick about this. Can you please let us know what you think? What risk are there, if any, for her and the baby? (16 Nov 1999)

  49. I am 25 and have recently been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. After about four weeks on very low doses of insulin (3 units a day), I was able to live for three months without any treatment. What does this mean? (16 Nov 1999)

  50. I recently went to a benefit for a program called FIT. It seems that most of the doctors and the AMA are afraid to try anything that they do not have any credit for establishing. The program has been very successful in Vienna for 18 years. What is the USA afraid of? (11 Nov 1999)

  51. I am a 30 year woman diagnosed with hypothyroidism and suddenly I found my glucose level has increased. Can I switch to some other medicine than Synthroid [thyroid hormone], or what precautions are to be taken? (11 Nov 1999)

  52. My 5 year old daughter was diagnosed with Type 1 three weeks ago. My husband and I are working very hard to learn everything we need to know, but I am still at a loss concerning sugars in food. How many grams of sugar are acceptable for her to eat for a snack? (11 Nov 1999)

  53. Both of our children have Type 1 diabetes, plus a family friend has low blood sugar. All 3 claim drinking tea reduces blood sugars. Could the tannic acid in tea cause this or a coincidence that this is happening? (10 Nov 1999)

  54. My son is twelve and was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes six months ago. I don't understand the diabetes "diet" thing and eating healthy. If all carbohydrates and portions of proteins are broken down to the fundamental "fuel" glucose, what's it matter if you eat a piece of cake or green beans and bread? (10 Nov 1999)

  55. I have a 10 year old daughter who has had diabetes for 7 years. She joined a swim team this summer and I am wondering what are the best types of foods for her to eat. (10 Nov 1999)

  56. I have a son who is a diabetic and has been since he was 2; it's been 8 years now. My problem is regarding my second son who is 4. I checked his blood on occasion and his sugars fluctuate wildly. (10 Nov 1999)

  57. I wsa diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 2 1/2 years ago. Now, because I am a type 2 diabetic and must use 35 to 40 units of Humalog to eat, is there any information on what these large doses of insulin could do to me? (10 Nov 1999)

  58. My son was diagnosed 1 year ago with Type 1 diabetes. He is still in his honeymoon. We are contemplating a move to Rio de Janeiro and would like to find out the medical capabilities of other countries, specifically Rio, Brazil in our case. (10 Nov 1999)

  59. My 12 year old daughter was diagnosed with fructose/sucrose intolerance last week. Many diabetic recipes use fructose. I'm assuming that she should under no circumstances use fructose. Can I substitute a sugar substitute like Equal which she is allowed to use in recipes? (10 Nov 1999)

  60. My daughter is 14 and feels she can do "nothing right". She has now begun to test only on occasion and has missed giving herself a needle in the morning after breakfast. I am concerned that she may be experiencing depression centered around the diabetes issues. (10 Nov 1999)

  61. I'm a scared mother of a 15-year old boy. He refuses to check his blood and only occasionally gives himself his insulin. He went to see a counselor once and refuses to go back. He was diagnosed a year ago. What can I do to help this situation? (9 Nov 1999)

  62. My 5 year old daughter was diagnosed about seven months ago. After a brief period she went into the honeymoon phase. Last week her insulin needs started to increase dramatically. We had to double her insulin dosage. Is this common during the honeymoon phase? (9 Nov 1999)

  63. My daughter is 16 and was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes one year ago. She is missing one permanent tooth. Is there any reason why we should not choose to correct this with a surgical implant? (9 Nov 1999)

  64. My granddaughter, 14 years old, was diagnosed 5 weeks ago. Her mother and I are concerned about other symptoms which have not been addressed by the doctor, such as: loss of hair, loss of enamel on her teeth, her period which started at age 12 and stopped after 2 periods. (9 Nov 1999)

  65. When my infant daughter was in an Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, we were told that her blood sugar levels were expected to be significantly lower than what we look for in my husband who is diagnosed type 1. This has made us wonder what would the normal levels be for our two year old son. (9 Nov 1999)

  66. My six year old daughter was diagnosed with "diabetic ketoacidosis" 4 months ago. We could manage her blood sugar level well till last week. However, her blood sugar level started to increase 215 mg/dl before breakfast and other values is between 150 to 200 mg/dl at day time. Can I do anything else except to adjust Insulin doses? (9 Nov 1999)

  67. A recent article in a local newspaper linked diabetes with the effects of heat and humidity. Is this a valid concern for Juvenile Diabetics -- especially in the South? School began in early August, we have concerns with outdoor physical education classes. (9 Nov 1999)

  68. My daughter is 9 years old and was "diagnosed" 3 months ago as a pre-diabetic with the possibility of becoming a type 1 in the next few years. Initially I was told she was a type 2, as she produces excessive amounts of insulin. She has been placed on a low carb/high protein diet. What else can we do to help her? (9 Nov 1999)

  69. I'm a 30-year-old male type 2 diagnosed a year ago. My last A1c is 5.5 checked about 2 months ago. Now I feel constant numbness and pain in the thigh area of both legs. Since I check my sugar level every day and it's quite normal, is there anything else I can do to improve the sensation on my legs? (9 Nov 1999)

  70. I'm a 17 year old female. Recently, my blood glucose has been in the range of 200-380. I eat little, inject a lot more insulin than I used to, and get enough exercise, but my blood glucose remains high. What can I do? (9 Nov 1999)

  71. I have a 7 year old who has been having a problem with frequent urination. She has two aunts and a cousin with diabetes, who are also Hispanic. She recently had her urine and blood checked and there wasn't any sugar in the urine and the blood was 90. (9 Nov 1999)

  72. Our 2 year old was just diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes does not run in either of our families. I have talked to several medical professionals and they have said that there is a huge increase in diabetes in the last ten years. I believe this huge increase may be related to the increase in immunizations. (9 Nov 1999)

  73. I am a nurse and am dealing with two 5 year old diabetics. I have doctor's orders to give insulin after lunch with one of these children. The type of insulin used is Humalog. I am familiar with many aspects of diabetes, but not with the practice of giving insulin after a meal. (9 Nov 1999)

  74. Why is it that some people can have a 500 blood glucose, but not have ketones, while I can be at 240 or thereabouts and be spilling large ketones in my urine? (9 Nov 1999)

  75. How do type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia relate to each other? I am 25 and have been told by one of my doctors that I have hypoglycemia, however, I suffer terribly with all the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. (9 Nov 1999)

  76. My 13 year old daughter was diagnosed 6 months ago and is still in the honeymoon period. Will taking daily aspirin or other anti-inflammatory medicine prolong the honeymoon? (7 Nov 1999)

  77. My 16 year old son was diagnosed with Type 1 about 1 month ago. We have communion (bread and wine) at our church every two weeks. Can he now continue to partake of the wine or will this cause problems? (7 Nov 1999)

  78. My 3 1/2 year old daughter was diagnosed almost 1 month ago with type 1 diabetes. Where are the trials involving vitamin E and nicotinamide and how do I receive more specifics about them? (7 Nov 1999)

  79. My 18 year old son has seizures during sleep (neurological testing shows nothing abnormal), low blood sugar, ketones in urine, and a trace of blood in urine. Can you tell me what these might mean? (7 Nov 1999)

  80. My 13 year old son was diagnosed with type 1 four months ago, and I am 34 and was diagnosed with type 2 two months ago. I have read that vitamin E will help increase blood flow to your eyes. How much should we take? (7 Nov 1999)

  81. My daughter is 15 years old. She was diagnosed with diabetes four years ago. She has been having unexplained highs. Could it really be that she needs to take more insulin to cover what she eats? (7 Nov 1999)

  82. My 9 year old daughter has had Type 1 for almost a year. It seems to me that the carbohydrates in milk and yogurt have much less of an effect on blood glucose than the carbs in fruit and starches. Any suggestions about how to count them? (5 Nov 1999)

  83. I am 16 years old and was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes about six weeks ago. After two weeks my blood sugars were consistently between 75 and 100, but then they slowly started going up. Increasing insulin doesn't seem to work. A few doctors have suggested that I get an antibody test to see if it is a problem with the pituitary gland. (5 Nov 1999)

  84. My daughter is 21. She had been a pump user for about 6 months. In the last two years, she has had to be hospitalized on 4 occasions due to unexplained rises in her blood glucose, to over 500. Is there any possible explanation (without being able to examine her) that can be given for such events? (5 Nov 1999)

  85. I am 28 years old, and was diagnosed with diabetes when I was 12. My husband and I have recently been discussing starting a family. My biggest concern is my blood pressure. I worry about being taken off of these medications. How might this affect a baby? (5 Nov 1999)

  86. If the parent of a pre-school child requests to be included in the school lunch program, what are legal ramifications if the school does not honor that request? I am a part-time school nurse in a Catholic grammar school and our lunch is provided for low-income families. (5 Nov 1999)

  87. Has anyone used the [brand name deleted] lancets? How do they compare to the others that have been rated? Unfortunately my insurance provider will only pay for this one brand of lancets. (5 Nov 1999)

  88. My 6 1/2 year old grandson with diabetes for 2 1/2 years has now been diagnosed with Celiac Disease. Can you provide information and recommendations to send to my daughter? (5 Nov 1999)

  89. I am trying to set up a support group for high school kids with diabetes in a rural county here in Utah with one of the highest DM rates in the state. My focus is more of a "you're not alone" psychological approach rather than a medical treatment group. Do you have any advice or could you recommend any good resources (readings, etc.)? (4 Nov 1999)

  90. I am 16 years old and have just recently been diagnosed with hypoglycemia. My doctors have told me I have severely low blood sugar. I know this is not diabetes but I can't find any information on it. I was wondering is this a serious condition? (4 Nov 1999)

  91. My boyfriend is a 21 year old Type 1 diabetic, diagnosed when he was 3. His health on average is good, but I worry about his lack of concern when his blood readings are very high and when he has insulin reactions. I worry constantly and I can't take the heartbreak of more frequent insulin reactions. (4 Nov 1999)

  92. My 5 year old son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes only about a month ago. He is now in the honeymoon and only receives 5 units of NPH in the morning. Even though he gets no insulin after 9:00 A.M., he still wakes up often with a blood sugar below 50. Why is he waking up so low? (4 Nov 1999)

  93. I am a second year college student and am living off campus for the first time. This means that I have to go shopping for myself and cook too. I was wondering if you could tell me a meal plan that would be cost efficient and healthy? (4 Nov 1999)

  94. My son was recently diagnosed with strep throat. It was rudely suggested that he had developed the illness because his glucose was not being properly managed. Is it possible for a child's immune system to be harmed by erratic numbers, to the point that he could contract disease (strep) more easily? (4 Nov 1999)

  95. What do you make of the latest reports about the association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine? (4 Nov 1999)

  96. Our 12 year old daughter was diagnosed with Type 1 approximately 6 weeks ago. Her blood sugar range is 60-150. She is within range in the morning, at lunch and on the weekends, but every afternoon after school, she is over 500 and sometimes 600. (2 Nov 1999)

  97. I am a kindergarten teacher who has a little boy in my room that has been diagnosed with hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, not diabetes. His mother claims that when his blood sugar gets low he will become very active and talkative. I want to know if this is true. (2 Nov 1999)

  98. I am 27 weeks pregnant with my third child. The baby currently weighs 1 pound 15 ounces by ultrasound. I have had IDDM for 11 years and have no complications. I keep in good control is it likely my baby may be of normal size? (2 Nov 1999)

  99. Has any link has been established between Rh incompatibility in pregnancy and the later onset of autoimmune conditions? (2 Nov 1999)

  100. We've had issues with meter accuracy, particularly in the lower blood sugar range. Beyond replacing our current meter we have with a new but the same one, we haven't made a decision regarding an alternate meter. (2 Nov 1999)

  101. I'm in between specialists now and want to confirm the glucagon dosage for my five year old daughter. She is type 1, has had diabetes for 22 months, and is forty pounds. My old specialist said to mix all of the glucagon but to only inject her with half of the vial. (2 Nov 1999)

  102. How does my doctor determine how much insulin I need to take? She looks at this card with the time the different insulins take to work and then tells me to take, like 24 units in the morning? How does she arrive at the number 24? (2 Nov 1999)

The Diabetes Team

Bill Jones, MD (Specialist in the management of diabetes during pregnancy, member since April 1997)
Marco Songini, MD (Italy) (Pediatric, adolescent, and adult endocrinologist and diabetologist, member since April 1997)
Larry Deeb, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since July 1998)
John Schulga, MBChB MRCGP MRCP FRCPCH (UK) (Consultant Paediatrician in childhood and adolescent diabetes and endocrinology, member since July 1999)
Stuart Brink, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since October 1999)
Matthew Brown, MD (Pediatrician and a Pediatric Diabetologist, member since January 2000)
Jim Lane, MD (Adult Endocrinologist, member since November 2000)
David Schwartz, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since May 2001)
Andrea Scaramuzza, MD (Italy) (Pediatric Endocrinologist, member since October 2003)
Linda DiMeglio, MD (Pediatric Endocrinologist)

Barb Schreiner, RN, MPH, CDE (Diabetes Nurse Specialist, member since July 2002)
Jane Seley, RN, GNP, MPH, MSN, CDE, CHES (Diabetes Nurse Practitioner, member since August 2002)
Joe Solowiejczyk, RN, MSW (Family Therapist, member since April 2010)
Linda Mackowiak, RN, MS, FNP, CDE (Diabetes Nurse Specialist)

Jill Weissberg-Benchell, PhD (Medical Psychology and Psychiatry, member since January 2000)

James Michael Schurig, MS, RD, LD, CDE (Dietitian, member since December 2000)

Exercise Physiologists
Rick Philbin, M.Ed., A.T.C., C.S.C.S (Sports Medicine, member since July 2004)

Lois Schmidt Finney, RD, MPH, CDE (DPT-1 Research Coordinator, member since July 1998)
Heather Speer, MPH, CCRC, CDE (Clinical Diabetes Research and Education Coordinator, member since July 1998)

Social Workers
Debbie Butler, CDE, MSW, LICSW (Licensed Clinical Social Worker, member since October 2004)

And Our Occasional Experts

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